He recognised the responsibility of "the French State"[120][124] for seconding the "criminal folly of the occupying country", in particular the French police, headed by René Bousquet (charged in 1990 with crimes against humanity),[163] which assisted the Nazis in the enactment of the so-called "Final Solution". "[18], The Vichy government tried to assert its legitimacy by symbolically connecting itself with the Gallo-Roman period of France's history, and celebrated the Gaulish chieftain Vercingetorix as the "founder" of the nation. [157], In 1993, former Vichy official René Bousquet was assassinated while he awaited prosecution in Paris following a 1991 inculpation for crimes against humanity; he had been prosecuted but partially acquitted and immediately amnestied in 1949. [173] Henceforth, on its own Vichy decided, within the homeland, to implement the "National Revolution" ("Révolution nationale"). The writer and Jewish internee Robert Aron estimated the popular executions to a number of 40,000 in 1960. [85], Historians distinguish between state collaboration followed by the Vichy regime, and "collaborationists", who were private French citizens eager to collaborate with Germany and who pushed towards a radicalisation of the regime. Vichy leader executed for treason Pierre Laval, the puppet leader of Nazi-occupied Vichy France, is executed by firing squad for treason against France. The independence of women was reversed, with an emphasis put on motherhood. [65] This first experience was valuable in later Seabee (phonetic pronunciation of the naval acronym, CB, or Construction Battalion) efforts in the Pacific, and the Bora Bora base supplied the Allied ships and planes that fought the battle of the Coral Sea. 2,500 of them transited through the Camp des Milles near Aix-en-Provence before joining Drancy. Collaboration refers to those of the French who for whatever reason collaborated with the Germans whereas collaborationism refers to those, primarily from the fascist right, who embraced the goal of a German victory as their own. Numerous Jewish children were prohibited from going to school, something which not even Vichy had implemented in metropolitan France. [141], Meanwhile, the Vichy regime promoted a highly traditional model of female roles. Pétainistes, on the other hand, were direct supporters of Marshal Pétain rather than of Germany (although they accepted Pétain's state collaboration). Historians have since the 1970s rejected that position and argued, "Vichy had a political agenda of its own, which it pursued without the slightest pressure from Germany. The shortage of volunteers led the Vichy government to pass a law in September 1942 that effectively deported workers to Germany, where they constituted fifteen percent of the labour force by August 1944. [98] Foreigners were rounded-up in "Foreign Workers' Groups" (groupements de travailleurs étrangers) and as with the colonial troops, used by the Germans as manpower. Paris: Edition du, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 05:38. In July 1940, Vichy set up a special commission charged with reviewing naturalisations granted since the 1927 reform of the nationality law. In theory, the civil jurisdiction of the Vichy government extended over most of metropolitan France, French Algeria, the French protectorate in Morocco, the French protectorate of Tunisia, and the rest of the French colonial empire that accepted the authority of Vichy; only the disputed border territory of Alsace-Lorraine was placed under direct German administration. While it is certain that the Vichy government and a large number of its high administration collaborated in the implementation of the Holocaust, the exact level of such co-operation is still debated. More Jews lived in France at the end of the Vichy regime than had approximately ten years earlier. Their policy changed in tune with the fortunes of the war. [149] Brinon,[150] Luchaire, and Darnand were captured, tried, and executed by 1947. The vote was 5564 to 18 in favour of joining the Free French side. They were deposed after the Allies liberated Paris and Charles de Gaulle assumed power as the true leader of France. Vichy France's efforts to remain independent ultimately proved futile in November 1942, when German forces invaded the French State. and civil servants (Papon, etc.). Much more stringent, and the what happened to the leaders of vichy france welfare state regime '' France conducted military against... The police, headed by Bousquet, arrested 7,000 Jews in the title was merely rhetorical unions with compulsory unions. And controls were lenient was that Vichy was a National program to modernise and professionalise small business by. 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